The Gratitude Attitude: Five Best Days

Gratitude is an attitude that mental health professionals say promotes mental well-being. They advise practices such as noting three good things about each day and writing them down at night. Studies actually show that such habits durably improve mood. In the giving spirit of the Christmas season I would like to share with you one of our family traditions that, in retrospect, I realize promotes the gratitude attitude over the course of each year.

We began taking our boys to Colorado to learn to ski when they were very little. Economic and time constraints meant one week a year, determined by my husband’s surgical on-call schedule. That week included the turn of the year on New Year’s Eve. Children’s skiing torchlight parades, followed by dinner at a Chinese restaurant and early bedtimes gradually gave way to a movie (usually laughably bad) followed by dinner at a locals’ Italian restaurant with paper-covered tablecloths and crayons for doodling. The family expanded to include our boys’ friends – first as children and teenagers along for a vacation, then as young men who worked as ski instructors. Somewhere along the way we began the habit of discussing our five best days of the year over New Year’s Eve dinner.

The crayons and the paper table covers are very convenient – everyone begins jotting down their five best days, in order, almost as soon as the menus arrive. The entire dinner time winds up devoted to going around the table in five rounds, hearing from each person about what made each wonderful day and how they decided where to rank it in the list. The choices are life stories in snapshots, changing with growth and priorities. They are funny, poignant and surprising. We also hear from people who have been with us on past New Year’s Eves, calling, e-mailing, or texting their top five days, sometimes accompanied by pictures. They all get heard.

The reason this tradition promotes gratitude is a very practical one. If you know you are going to have to come up with your five best days of the year on New Year’s Eve you learn pretty quickly that memories are weak. You cannot cram for this test. You have to start noticing potential top five days as they happen over the course of the year. You start writing them down. Pretty soon you actually have a little journal and it contains good stuff. The good things that happen in life start to break into your awareness and compete with danger-surveillance program that runs continually in the background of your mind. All good, with none of the side effects of mood enhancing drugs (which fail in the long run anyway).

Just as a matter of historical interest, we traced this tradition back to its origins. It actually began with my husband’s surgical training at Massachusetts General Hospital. The surgical interns and residents on the general surgery service met at the end of each day and were asked to talk about the cases they helped with and to explain what they had learned. The practice helped everyone process what they had done and learn from their experiences. As a family, we were always sit-down dinner people,  with candles even when there was still a high chair at the table. Like the surgery residents, we  always talked about everyone’s day. Skiing days included lots of bests. Best fall, best jump, best run, best lift ride. The evolution to a summing up of bests at the end of a year was inevitable. What is a surprise is the way the practice has continued and spread from our families to others. Maybe you would like to give it a try.

Human Diversity: A Mind Thing

(A version of this essay was published in Minnesota Medicine in March, 2005.)

The first snowy egret I ever saw was standing in a shallow pool, a beautiful white creature with a wispy headdress floating in a gentle breeze. When he lifted off, trailing his long black legs, I was startled by a flash of bright yellow – he looked like he was wearing a child’s rubber boots, designed to hug a bird’s clawed feet. He did a loop around the pond in  flying low in a peculiar, non-aerodynamic position. His legs hung down rather than stretching out parallel to his body. He dipped closer to the water and his dangling yellow feet brushed the surface. He’s landing, I thought. But he didn’t. He repeated the maneuver four times.  He’s afraid to land, I thought. But then he touched down with hardly a splash, and dipped his beak to catch a fish, then another, and another. In a moment of bird-watching epiphany, I realized that his feet were like a fisherman’s lure. He’d rounded up his lunch. 

I looked around the pond. I’d just watched a bird with bright yellow feet use them to attract the curiosity of his prey. Across the water was a bird with a lower bill that expanded into a pouch to collect fish as he skimmed, openmouthed, over the water. Perched high above was another, just about to dine on a large fish he’d  skewered with  fearsome talons. What an impressive display of diversity!  If people were this diverse, New England fishermen would grow waterproof, blubber lined hands, typists would develop extra fingers, and mothers really would have eyes in the backs of their heads.  

But people are pretty much the same as far as their bodily equipment goes.  Five fingers on each of two hands, ten toes divided between two feet, two eyes, upright posture, and a narrow range of physical abilities, notwithstanding the spread between ordinary and Olympian. The traits we associate with human diversity are superficial – hair color and texture, skin color, facial appearance. Almond shaped or round, eyes still see. Long, elegant skeletal frames and short squat ones all support bodies against the universal force of gravity. Skin pigmentation protects the body covering from the sun, more or less depending on the power of the sun in the areas of the world where the people originated. We are much more like each other than we are different in our biology. The birds have it all over us in the diversity contest.  

After my egret experience, I packed up my binoculars, got on my bike and headed home, humbled a little by the thought that all of the talk and concern about diversity among people is overblown, maybe just another representation of man’s abiding sense of self-importance. But along the way I passed bikes and cars, houses and stores, a radio broadcast tower, and a museum.  I crossed a bridge between two islands and waved to a fisherman in his boat. And I realized that each of these man made things  I passed began as an idea, somewhere, some time, in somebody’s head. We might not differ much in anatomy and physiology, but no two of us have identical thoughts. The mind is the site of the real diversity among humans. The mind is plastic and ever developing. It records, collates, recalls, communicates, and combines unrelated information in new ways. Yellow feet catch the eye, but minds change the world.

Hospice: Not a Place

In her 1972 testimony before Congress, Dr. Elizabeth Kubler-Ross, author of the 1969 best-selling book On Death and Dying, stated that “We live in a very particular death-denying society. We isolate both the dying and the old, and it serves a purpose. They are reminders of our own mortality.” What she wanted was recognition on the part of the government that families could be helped more with home care and visiting nurses at the end of a loved one’s life than with institutional and aggressive medical care. Her testimony was a description of a philosophy of medical care known in England as hospice – a medieval word for the traveler’s hostels run by monks in the Alps.

The hospice movement begins in the USA

The hospice movement in the US had begun in the 1960s when the nursing school dean at Yale University invited Dame Cicely Saunders, the mother of the hospice movement in England, to teach for several months. Hospice growth was stuttering over the next few decades, with growing pains coming not only from wrangling over Congressional allocations of money, but also from the process of trying to identify the suitability of patients for hospice care. The requirement for a prediction that a patient entering hospice care would live less than 6 months proved extremely difficult, particularly when the patients did not have cancer.

Misconceptions

Initially, hospice care was viewed negatively by many as either giving up on life or as a form of euthanasia or doctor-assisted suicide. It is none of these. Hospice is a shift away from attempting to cure medical problems and toward care of the whole patient by a multidisciplinary team with the patient and family at the center. From demonstration hospice projects launched in 1979 to the current care of more than 1.65 million Americans a year, the philosophy of caring rather than curing has proven itself good.  In 2007, a paper in the Journal of Pain and Symptom Management reported that patients who had hospice care lived slightly longer than similarly ill patients who were treated conventionally. This surprising conclusion was followed two years later by a New England Journal of Medicine report that patients with non-small cell lung cancer may live longer with hospice care than with other therapies.

Shifting the focus

Hospice is medical care, but care with an aim different from the curative focus of conventional medical care. There is no fighting imagery used in hospice – no war on the cancer, no battle to be bravely fought. The care in hospice is palliative, emphasizing comfort and acceptance, with the meeting of physical needs in an environment as close to home as possible. The patient and family are the unit of care, and the team consists of the patient’s doctor, a hospice doctor, nurses, nurses’ aides, social workers, physical therapists, spiritual counselors, bereavement counselors and volunteers. The focus of patient care is pain and symptom control, as well as emotional and spiritual support for all involved.

The process

Hospice care begins with a doctor’s referral when a patient and his family realize they are ready to turn away from the aggressive attempts to cure a problem which will eventually result in death. The Medicare Guidelines for entering a hospice program require that a patient have a terminal illness with less than six months to live. (Medicare is the payment source for most hospice care). But that six-month prognosis should not be confused with length of care in hospice – care is provided for however long it is necessary. Over 12% of hospice patients live past the initial 6 months of care.

The team

Once a hospice referral is made, a team member, usually a nurse, begins an assessment of physical and emotional needs and crafts a team to meet those needs. Hospice provides the home equipment, medications and support for family as they learn to provide physical care. Volunteers help with respite care to allow family members time to themselves. Social workers evaluate economic needs and pastoral care members address spiritual and emotional needs. Short term hospitalizations are arranged if necessary for symptom control. While most hospice care takes place in the home, similar teams operate in institutions like hospitals, nursing homes and fee-standing hospice facilities, depending upon the availability and competence of family members.

A longer period of comfort

Sadly, over a third of hospice enrollees live less than a week. The time to begin thinking about hospice care is early in the course of a potentially lethal illness since preparation may help a patient live a longer period of a terminal illness in more physical and emotional comfort.

It is helpful to have time to see what hospice organizations are available locally, to check certifications, and to talk with people who provide hospice services. The National Hospice and Palliative Care Association is an invaluable source of information.*  Hospitals are committed to helping arrange hospice care and a direct appeal to the hospital’s hospice coordinator  is possible if the patient’s doctor does not make a referral. If a patient is not ready for hospice care, but is also unwilling to continue aggressive curative attempts, palliative care is also available – care aimed at comfort and symptom control alone rather than cure. An example is quitting or refusing chemotherapy for cancers which respond poorly.

Finances

Hospice care is paid for by most insurance policies in the US (but not in other countries) and under the Medicare Hospice benefit. Medicaid is also a payer. Surveys report that 94% of families feel their experience with hospice care was very good or excellent. The US Department of Health and Human Services is now behind expanding the availability of hospice care because it “holds enormous potential benefits for those nearing the end of life…”  So as medicine moves into the brave new age of genetics, with new, individualized treatments for cancer, and more and more procedures to rewire, replumb and reconstruct the body, hospice care also moves forward, bringing the elderly and the dying out of isolation and educating the people who love them about the universal and necessary process of dying.

 

*https://nhpco.org

Why We Cry..and How We Make the Tears

 

 

“It is such a secret place, the land of tears.” The Little Prince, Antoine de Saint-Exupery

Do animals cry? Probably not. Indian gamekeepers told Charles Darwin stories of elephants that shed tears of sadness, and dog lovers have tales of canine tears, but the emotional tears of humans are unparalleled in the animal kingdom.

We are always making tears

All land dwelling animals, including people, make tears constantly. Eyes are windows on the world, and baseline tears are constant window washers. The window pane is the cornea, a thin panel of collagen, containing very few cells, no blood vessels, and more nerves per square inch than any other part of the body. These nerves signal alarm and summon an army of reflexive tears in response to a speck of dust, a cold wind, or a whiff of an onion. Reflexive tears, which are just a lot of baseline tears, wash out intruders and fill in dry patches on the cornea, keeping it clear and moist to focus light entering the eye. Emotional tears appear in humans during infancy, but not immediately. The crying that infants first do to signal their needs is much like the crying of little chimpanzees – tearless. Emotional tears come later, just like talking. Both are outward expressions of the lives of our minds, and they take a while to learn.

What tears are made of

Tears are much more than little beads of salt water running down your face. They are a three layer sandwich. The oil-containing molecules in the outer layer tighten up the surface of the watery middle layer to keep it from spilling over eyelid and sliding off the surface it protects. The oil floats on the watery middle layer and smooths its surface, optimizing the passage of light through to the eye’s interior. The third part of the sandwich, inside and closest to the eye, is the mucinous layer, kind of a gluey protein that helps tears stick to the eyeball. The mucinous proteins capture and kill biologic intruders like bacteria and viruses, and soak up some of the watery layer to help transfer nutrients, oxygen and moisture to the cornea. Both the oil and mucin slow evaporation of tears as blinking spreads them over the eye.

Evaporation and drainage

Dry spots appear on the cornea after just fifteen non-blinking seconds – easy to do while concentrating or daydreaming. Even with blinking, tears evaporate, or they drain out from the eye into the nose via two tiny lacrimal ducts on the upper and lower eyelids near the nose. If these ducts become scarred or blocked by infection, tears overflow. Six to 10% of babies are born with tear ducts not yet open, but 95% of these will open by age one without any attempt at surgical repair. Conversely, one way of treating dry eyes is to block these ducts with small plastic pellets.

Dry eyes

Too few tears, tears with abnormal composition, and decreased blinking cause dry eyes that itch, sting, burn, get red, and cause blurred vision. Dry eyes are an increasing problem in our air-conditioned, airline-traveling, contact lens-wearing, Lasiked, medicated and aging society. The list of drugs that dry eyes includes many commonly prescribed classes: decongestants, antidepressants, antihypertensives, antihistamines, beta-blockers, hormones, diuretics, ulcer medications, acne drugs, and oral contraceptives. Other causes of dry eyes are infections and immune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis and Sjogren’s syndrome as well as  radiation and radioactive iodine treatment can also damage the tear producing cells. All of these conditions damage the tear producing cells  – the machinery for tear production. 

Remedies for dry eyes 

Treatment of dry eyes is always aimed at removing offending problems and increasing lubrication. The usual tactics include artificial tears, wind protection, air humidification, cessation of unnecessary medications, and treatment of underlying diseases and infections. Excessive tearing often means allergies, or blocked lacrimal ducts leading to poor drainage of baseline tears into the nose.

 

The tear producing machinery

The medical conditions mentioned above shut down tear production and cause pain and swelling in the lacrimal gland, a spongy little structure tucked up under the upper outer corner of the eyelid. The lacrimal gland is the tear producing factory, aided by the oil-producing Meibomiam glands near the eyelashes, and a cluster of mucin-producing cells in the eyelid lining.

The controls for the machinery

When the lacrimal glands get a call for more tears, either reflexive or emotional, the messages come through the autonomic nervous system, which oversees the automatic functions of the body. Reflexive tears spring from messages sent from the eye and nose. Emotional tears come from messages sent by the limbic system, the deepest and oldest part of the brain, the part that conjures up feelings.

What are emotional tears?

What are emotional tears? Are they just more voluminous baseline tears? Or does emotional crying rid us of “humors of the brain,” as Hippocrates thought? In Roman times, mourners used small glass vials called lachrymators to collect their tears for burial with the one for whom they cried. In today’s laboratory, emotional tears are almost as hard to come by as research money to investigate them. Some dedicated men such as Professor William H. Frey II (Dept. of Pharmaceutics at the U. Of Minnesota) have learned enough to suggest that tears of grief rid the body of some of the products of stress, supporting the claim that crying makes people feel better. Compared to reflexive tears, emotional tears contain up to 25% more proteins, of classes related to stress. Why? No one knows – yet. Emotional tears are still a land of mystery, part of the unique expression of inner life that separates the human animal from the others.

 

Thin Bones

Osteoporosis is an equal opportunity disease. Everyone is at some risk for age- related thinning of the bones. Prevention is the best treatment, and understanding how osteoporosis happens is the key to prevention.

Bone is alive

Bone may resemble concrete, but it is vibrant, living tissue that is perpetually under reconstruction. From the time of birth, when bones are composed mostly of soft, pliable cartilage, they shape and reshape themselves. Cells called osteoblasts appear in the cartilage and begin to lay down a protein matrix, spinning it into flexible tendrils like fine rope. A mixture of minerals, mostly calcium and phosphorus, hardens the matrix, creating the blend of strength and flexibility needed for the forces the skeleton has to bear. Throughout life the bones restore, remodel and repair themselves in response to the stresses of life on a planet governed by gravity.

Bones are storage depots for calcium

The bones also store calcium for the rest of the body and respond to its constant demands for the mineral. Cells called osteoclasts break bone down to free calcium for use elsewhere, and to remodel bone where changes are needed. So there is a constant interplay of bone construction and bone destruction throughout life, with the material of you skeleton renewing itself completely every ten years or so.

Bones build, remodel and breakdown

In youth, bone construction goes full blast. Once maturity hits, the process evens out. In older age, breakdown begins to exceed construction. Just another sign of inevitable decline? Yes, but don’t give up hope. You control some things that influence how fast bone loss occurs, and science is making strides to help.

You are the general contractor

You are in charge of the building material that your bones use. A healthy balance of food, including protein, fat, calcium and Vitamin D makes healthy, well-mineralized bones. You need 1200 milligrams of calcium a day, the amount in about three glasses of milk, and 400 IU of Vitamin D, which is made in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight (10-15 minutes of sun on hands arms and face, or back, twice a week). Vitamin D deficiency is common in the elderly because of indoor lifestyles, and in northern climates. Many foods are fortified with Vitamin D, and cod liver oil and fish are excellent natural sources.

Childhood habits matter

The bone density that you achieve in youth is important because it is the starting point for the gradual losses that come later. Maximal bone density for life is achieved in the early twenties The generations of children that have opted for pop over milk are at a disadvantage, arriving at adulthood with less calcium than past generations have.  and pediatricians are already seeing more children with fractures than in the past. The cost of neglecting childhood nutrition is bound to rise as time passes.

Gravity and exercise matter

You are also in charge of the activity that stimulates bone formation. When you are upright and fighting gravity, the osteoblasts lay down more bone matrix where it is needed to bear weight, particularly in the pelvis, lower spine and hip. But as soon as the stresses diminish, the osteoclasts start their breakdown work. Just a few days of bed rest sets them in motion. Astronauts in the space lab, under minimal gravity, lose as much bone in a month as a post- menopausal woman loses in a year. Even the impaired movement of a bone under a cast causes localized osteoporosis.

The more you exercise against gravity – as in walking, running, doing yoga or calisthenics, or weight lifting – the more you will call osteoblasts into action. Sit out life, and your osteoclasts will dominate.

Who does osteoporosis affect?

Youth compensates for deficits in diet and activity, but as growth-related hormones fall with age, the cost comes due.  Genetic makeup counts too. Women lose more bone than men, smaller-framed people more than larger-framed people, and Caucasians,and Asians more than dark-skinned people. Smokers and heavy drinkers are also at higher risk for osteoporosis, as are people who are confined to bed or taking steroid medications.

The cost of thin bones

Thin bones break and fractures are costly, about $10 billion for the 1.5 million fractures a year in the USA. Spinal fractures, the most common breaks, are very painful and cause spinal deformity and loss of height. Of all the people who fracture hips, 50% are permanently disabled, and twenty percent are dead within a year, from the consequences of immobility. This mortality rate is even greater in men, who are 20% of the 44 million people who have or are at risk for osteoporosis.

Prevention of  osteoporosis and fractures

The best treatment for osteoporosis is prevention, starting in childhood. Prevention means solid diet and habitual weight bearing exercise throughout life, and, as the risk of falling increases, exercises to maintain speed and balance. Canes, walkers, hip protectors (padded garments worn over the hips), and attention to the living environment (clear walkways, even surfaces, handrails, etc.) are forms of external prevention.

The role – and the problems – of pharmacologic attempts at prevention

Doctors often recommend bone density tests and sometimes they prescribe drugs to slow the loss of bone. At menopause, bone loss accelerates, and estrogen supplements for a few years have been common practice. Newer drugs such as Evista mimic estrogen’s effects on bone alone and may be safer than the older hormone supplements, which are associated with increased risks of strokes and some cancers, especially when used for many years. The biphosphanates, like Fosamax, slow the work of the osteoclasts by attaching to bone to block breakdown. But they bond to the bone and cannot be released. Some unusual and serious side effects such as sudden, unprovoked leg bone fractures and death of jaw bone after dental procedures. Fortunately these have been fairly rare occurrences.   Calcium and Vitamin D supplements improve bone-building supplies, but calcium absorption is not as good from pills as it is from whole foods, and sunlight exposure produces much more Vitamin D than pills can provide. More severe osteoporosis warrants more unusual treatments like shots of calcium-regulating hormones.

You job

Your skeleton will outlast you. Your job is to do your best to make sure it supports you while you are here, and to pass the word to the younger generations who are still building their bones.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Gets Renamed

Imagine the way you felt the last time you had the flu. You were flattened, devoid of all energy. Staying upright to get dressed was more than you could handle. You slept – and slept – and slept – and still experienced none of the normal refreshment that a good night’s sleep provides. A fog descended on your mind and fuzzed up memory, destroyed drive and made your head ache. You could not concentrate on simple mental tasks like reading. Though you were doing nothing physical, your muscles ached. Then it all went away and you forgot about it.

But now imagine that it didn’t go away. The same misery persists and dramatically alters your life. You cannot work. You move from bed to couch and back to bed. You go to doctor after doctor and they find nothing wrong. Routine blood tests, X-ray and scan results are normal. Someone prescribes an antidepressant, confirming the suspicions of family, friends, and some doctors that your debilitating physical symptoms are “all in your head.” Eventually, you find your way to a doctor who makes a diagnosis. You have CFS which stands for chronic fatigue syndrome, and which, as of early 2015, has been renamed system exertion intolerance disease or, in our acronym-laden age, CFS/SEID.

A long history, with different names

CFS/SEID has probably been around for more than 200 years, making its appearance in the medical literature as “neurasthenia,” a term applied to patients who were lacking in physical, emotional and cognitive energy without any discernible disease to account for their malaise, without any improvement over time and without any progression that brought them to a worsened state. They were mostly ladies, whose frail constitutions prevented them from exerting themselves and who mysteriously took to their beds for weeks at a time.

The Yuppie flu

British doctors in the 1950s christened the symptom complex myalgic (painful muscles) encephalitis (inflammation of the brain), even though there was no evidence for inflammation to account for the headaches, difficulty concentrating and memory problems patients experienced. In the US in the 1980s, the syndrome was dubbed the Yuppie Flu because it seemed to follow viral infections like infectious mononucleosis and occurred in cities where young urban professionals (“yuppies”) congregated. When reported from other settings as well, the name was changed to chronic fatigue syndrome.

No apparent cause, but a real illness

Because no single infectious, hormonal or immunologic cause for CFS emerged from many attempts to identify its cause, because it was impossible to measure the subjective complaints constituting the syndrome, and because some improvements occurred when antidepressants were prescribed, CFS was, for decades, viewed as a psychological disorder. But this view became more and more untenable as it became clear that the illness hit people who had no history of depression or inability to cope with life. Many CFS patients continued to be very productive, learning how to manage their lives within the limitations of their fatigue and mental fog. Laura Hillenbrand, author of Seabiscuit and Unbroken is one outstanding example. Though no cause has yet been identified for the illness, the name change from chronic fatigue syndrome to systemic exertion intolerance disease signals that the illness is one rooted not in psychology but in an, as yet, unidentified physical cause.

Epidemiology and diagnostic criteria

It is estimated that there are about 1 million patients with CFS/ SEID in the US at any given time. There is no evidence that its incidence is increasing, but it is quite possible that some cases are hidden on among the legions of people who have been diagnosed only with depression. CFS/SEID is more common in women than in men. Sometimes it follows directly upon an acute flu-like illness, but at other times appears out of nowhere. The diagnostic criteria at this time include 6 months of unexplained, life-altering fatigue and orthostatic intolerance, which means the inability to stand for more than very short periods. Four of eight other symptoms are also required and these include disturbances in memory and concentration, persistent sore throat, tender lymph nodes, muscle pain, joint pain, headache, disturbed sleep patterns, and malaise following even minimal exertion. Additional symptoms may include increased sensitivity to tastes, odors, temperature and noise.

A relapsing illness

A small minority of CFS/SEID patients get completely better and never suffer a relapse. The majority suffer relapses for prolonged periods of time, perhaps the rest of their lives. Relapses are triggered by infections, surgery, temperature extremes and stressful events. Another minority are severely affected from the beginning of their illness and require support in the activities of daily living for the rest of their lives. Deterioration, though, is unusual and suggests the diagnosis of CFS is wrong and further attempts to find the correct diagnosis are indicated.

Problems in mitochondrial energy production?

While there is no identifiable single cause for CFS/SEID, poor energy production seems to be at the root of the many symptoms in this illness, which has focused some researchers’ attention on mitochondria – the powerhouses of all cells in the body. Mitochondria must continuously recycle the molecules they use to produce energy and there is some indication that this process is impaired in people with CFS/SEID. Perhaps this is why experience has taught many CFS/SEID patients to pace their lives, always allowing significant time for recovery from exertion.

Boosting energy production

In addition to pacing life to allow recovery time, lifestyle alterations that seem to help CFS/SEID patients minimize relapses also happen to be useful in maximizing mitochondrial function. These include avoidance of drugs and environmental toxins, avoidance of processed foods with high carbohydrate and sugar concentrations, addition of whole foods containing plenty of antioxidants and high quality protein, correction of hormonal problems, especially of the thyroid gland, and decreasing chronic inflammation associated with obesity and allergies. Gradual and graded programs of exercise, outdoors with some sun exposure help prevent the loss of muscle associated with inactivity and improve Vitamin D levels, with positive effects on immune function. Continued research will most likely show that CFS/SEID has many causes, all of which result in impaired mitochondrial function.

Lyme Disease: A Whodunit Tale

Some medical advances begin with old-fashioned detective work. Lyme disease, which was unknown in this country prior to 1975 is a good example.  That fall, two mothers from Old Lyme, Connecticut convinced the state Department of Public Health and Yale University to explore a mysterious outbreak of cases of inflammatory arthritis among the town’s children, because they were unsatisfied with the explanations they had been given for the cause. The investigation that winter centered on thirty-nine children and twelve adults from Old Lyme, all of whom had developed painful swelling of one or more joints between June and September.

Clues in clinical histories

Although blood tests and physical exams of the affected people had not previously revealed any known cause for the painful, swollen joints, investigators noted that there were striking similarities in the patients’ histories. Especially notable was a peculiar spreading rash that appeared about a month prior to the development of the arthritis and resembled an archer’s bull’s eye target. The affected people also lived close to one another, all in heavily wooded areas. The researchers concluded that the area where the cases clustered and the time of year in which they occurred were both crucial clues to the mystery. They believed that the illness could be an unknown type of infection but would have to await the next disease “season” for confirmation of this theory.

More clues in old European medical literature

In the meantime, investigators began combing through European medical literature, where they discovered similar descriptions of rashes going back to 1909. Over time, the Europeans had named the skin lesion erythema migrans and associated it with an illness that was similar to the one being reported in Connecticut, although without the arthritis. Some European reports mentioned tick bites in conjunction with the rashes, as well as successful treatment with antibiotics. Back in Connecticut, the next summer produced thirty more cases of what was by then being called “Lyme arthritis,” which investigators now believed was some kind of infection transmitted during outdoor activity.

Figuring out the tick relationship

The next pieces of evidence came from field studies of ticks. The distribution of a particular type of tick called Ixodes scapularis (variously known as the blacklegged tick, deer tick, or bear tick) near Old Lyme matched the distribution of local arthritis cases. Tick autopsies conducted in New York on Shelter Island, another hot spot for this mystery arthritis, showed that most of the ticks carried a spiral-shaped bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi. Blood tests on affected individuals for antibodies to this organism tied it to the clinical cases of arthritis. Over the next two decades, the explosion of the deer population carrying the tick made the disease more common and widely known.As knowledge about and experience with the new disease accumulated, Lyme arthritis was renamed Lyme disease.

Early  Lyme disease symptoms

Lyme disease symptoms include an early stage of fatigue, muscle and joint pains, swollen glands, and headaches and fever that begin days to weeks after the infected tick bite. These symptoms represent the immune system’s response to the bacterial invasion. If a bull’s eye rash at the site of a former tick bite is present, diagnosis is easy. If not, diagnosis depends on a clear history of a tick bite and on the development of antibodies to the organism, which usually occurs later than the first few weeks of the illness.

Later symptoms

Left untreated, some, but not all infected patients develop symptoms within the next few weeks to months after the infected tick bite. Symptoms include arthritis, nerve pains, facial nerve paralysis, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and chest pains. An even less common late phase that can occur up to two years after an infected tick bite might include migrating joint pains, muscle aches, abnormal muscle movements, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and cognitive complaints such as memory problems. These symptoms are not well understood and may represent a combination of the body’s ongoing fight against persistent bacteria and an autoimmune response that they trigger.

Treatment

Treatment of Lyme disease with oral antibiotics, either doxycycline or amoxicillin, is usually curative. If an infected tick is attached for more than thirty-six hours (the least amount of time it takes for transmission of the infection) and was encountered in an area where more than 20 percent of the deer tick population carries Borrelia burgdorferi, most patients are given a prophylactic one-time dose of doxycycline. Otherwise, treatment with antibiotics for two to four weeks begins as soon as the diagnosis of Lyme disease is made. The earlier the treatment, the faster the disease responds and symptoms subside. Late-phase treatment of neurological, cardiac, or arthritic symptoms may require intravenous delivery of antibiotics over longer periods. Although rare cases of persistent symptoms after treatment exist, no study has yet shown enough benefit from very long-term antibiotic use to justify the potential adverse effects of such a treatment.

Prevention of tick bites

Prevention of Lyme disease is the best way to deal with the illness, and there are things you can do to protect yourself. In the states where most cases occur (the New England states and New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Wisconsin, and Minnesota), be aware that ticks tend to cling to high grasses and shrubbery in areas where deer roam. By hiking in the center of paths, away from tall grasses and shrubs, and wearing protective clothing, such as long sleeves and pants, you can reduce the chances of a tick bite. Shirt tails should be kept tucked in at the waist, sleeves should be kept closed at the wrists, and pants cuffs should be kept tucked into socks at the ankles. Additionally, spraying with insect repellent containing 20 to 30 percent DEET can help.

Self-examination is very important after potential tick exposure

The type of tick that transmits Lyme disease is Ixodes scapularis. It may be either a six-legged, immature tick nymph the size of a poppy seed or the slightly larger, eight-legged mature tick. Both forms excrete an anesthetic in their saliva that prevents you from feeling their bite, so close examination of your body is necessary after potential exposure. Bathe within two hours of coming inside and do a full body exam, with the aid of a mirror, paying close attention to areas covered with hair. Inspect all gear, clothing, and pets for ticks, and tumble clothing in a dryer at high heat to kill any hidden ticks.

Tick removal

Should you find an attached tick on your body, to remove it place the tip of a clean, fine-tipped tweezer as close to the skin as possible and pull gently, in a straight line. Dispose of all ticks in a toilet or drown them in alcohol and then seal them in a plastic bag for disposal. Clean bites with alcohol or iodine. Because the transmission of an infection from a tick to a human requires thirty-six to forty-eight hours of attachment, ridding yourself of ticks in the first twenty-four hours is effective prevention. Longer attachments that occur in high-risk parts of the country merit a single dose of doxycycline within seventy-two hours of a bite. Otherwise, be alert for symptoms or a rash, and seek treatment as soon as possible if they occur.  (See blow for a link to an interesting tick removal tool.*)

Research continues

The detective work surrounding the unraveling of the Lyme disease mystery continues today in the laboratory. Now researchers tend to focus on the rare people who, despite receiving adequate antibiotic treatment after contracting Lyme disease, experience persistent, unexplained, or recurring symptoms. These people remain almost as much of a mystery to researchers today as the initial thirty-nine children and twelve adult with arthritis were to researchers in the mid-1970s.

 

*Tick removal tool

https://www.thegrommet.com/tickease?utm_campaign=20180626&utm_content=49931&utm_medium=email&utm_source=CC&trk_msg=77TUPK4NDPL4R992MUGHP52NOS&trk_contact=4ACPOO38FT83AKKO084SUBGRPC&trk_sid=ICRD996NV2C3PQ9D216CFKVDLG

 

No more posts.